Manuscript Requirements

Word Length and Style
• Articles should be between 1,500 and 4,000 words in length; although, shorter contributions can be considered.
• Research and technical notes should not be more than 1,500 words.
• Articles should be typed on one side of an A4 paper with any Microsoft Word version not earlier than 2007.
• The line spacing should be double, and the default Microsoft Word margins should not be altered.
• The font size should be 12 points, and the font style, Times New Roman.
• Articles may not exceed 14 pages, including figures and tables, any extra page attach attract extra charge.
• Articles should be in English Language

Articles should be arranged in the following order:
Title page, abstract, introduction, theoretical analysis, methodology and/or experimental procedures, results and discussions, conclusions and recommendations, references, nomenclature, figures, tables and equations.

Title Page
• The title page should contain the title of the article which should not be more than 20 words, the name(s) of the author(s), their address(es) and functional email address(es).
• The order of names is given name before surname

• The abstract should be a minimum of 100 words and a maximum of 250 words.
• The abstract should have at least, five keywords which describe the work.
• The abstract should summarise the article, giving the objective, methodology, result, as well as conclusions and recommendations.

The introduction should describe the problem and review current efforts at effecting
solutions in the literature. The specific objectives of the paper should be indicated.

• Description of the method of analysis or solution procedure should be clearly given.
• For surveys and case studies, details should be given of the method of data collection, its synthesis and analysis.

Results and Discussions
The results and discussions must be pertinent to the title of the article, and may be presented in descriptive, tabular or graphical forms.

Conclusions and Recommendations
• The conclusions should summarise the findings, clearly stating the contributions to knowledge and their relevance.
• Recommendations for implementation or for areas of future study on the subject matter should be made.

• References to other materials should be in the American Psychological Association (APA) format. Any edition of this format earlier than the sixth edition is not recommended.
• References should be presented in the order below:

  • — Within the text, the author’s surname and the year of publication should be given, both separated by a comma, and all in round brackets.
  • — At the end of the article, a reference list arranged in alphabetical order, giving the full bibliographic details of the cited works should be made. References must have in-text citations, and all in-text citations must reflect in the references.

The use of abbreviations for journal titles in the references must be avoided.

Figures, Tables and Equations.
• All figures, whether line drawings, graphs or photographs should be given a numbers in Arabic numerals and in ascending order, as reference is first made to them in the text (e.g. Fig. 1)
• Tables are to be similarly numbered.
• Captions of figures should be below the respective figures; while captions of tables should be above the respective tables.
• All equations should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and the numbering should be in round brackets where they are cited in the text, e.g. Eqn. (1).

Symbols, Abbreviations and Units
• Symbols and abbreviations should be defined where first mentioned.
• In case of lots of symbols, a nomenclature defining symbols must be included.
• S.I Units should be used.

• Articles should be submitted in soft and hard copies.
• The soft copy should be sent as an attached file to; or
• Three hard copies should also be sent to Journal Office John Harris Library, University of Benin P.M.B 1154, Benin City.
• Articles submitted for publication are subject to a processing fee of N3,000.
• Articles accepted for publication are subject to charges of N5,000.
• Articles that exceed the required number of pages are subject to charges of N1,000 per page.
• All payments should be made to… (bank details)
• All payments, including payment of subscription should be made in… (cheque, bank draft, cash, etc)
• All payments are subject to review without prior notice to contributors.